All motion, in fact, has the same origin. The camera moves, so do men. Then everything comes to rest, or, various integral compositions made out of these create a whole design born in that dream.
Ritwik Ghatak [Ritwikkumar Ghatak, Rows and rows of fences: Ritwik Ghatak on cinema (Calcutta: Seagull Books, 2000), p. 65]
Every film is going to be more than you can see… Where the real cinema takes place is in your head.
The notion of a film born in a dream that then manages to figure that dream in all of these movements, in all of these modulations, in all of these articulations is at the heart of Ghatak
Adrian Martin, ‘Seven and a Half Minutes with Ritwik Ghatak (An Apprenticeship in Magic)‘, Film and Television Studies ‘Under Construction’ Seminar Series, Monash University, June 8, 2011(mp3: 1:40:38, mp4 – Video version)
Very recently, in a much-discussed Film Comment article by David Bordwell, and in the project of a fascinating book titled The Language and Style of Film Criticism ([eds. Alex Clayton and Andrew Klevan] Routledge 2011), an old-fashioned line has been redrawn, separating the work of criticism proper (evocative, descriptive, evaluative, lyrical, etc) from the so-called ‘formalism’ of close, textual analysis (frame and audio analysis, structural segment/part breakdown, etc). I reject this distinction.
In the lead-up to the WORLD CINEMA NOW conference this September at Monash, I propose taking seven and a half magnificent minutes – one complex scene in three parts – from Ritwik Ghatak’s Subarnarekha (The Golden Line, India, 1965) – and seeing how deeply we can dig into its sharp audiovisual beauty. Ghatak (1925-76), only now receiving the full international recognition he deserves, is a key figure for any history of cinematic forms: using the melodramatic tradition as his pivot between classicism and modernism, he elaborated a moment-to-moment style that was a form of fluid mise en scène shot through at every moment with the kind of disruptive ‘intervals’ beloved of his Master, Eisenstein. In Ghatak, scenes do not simply unfold: they open up into multiple, contesting worlds, man versus woman, old versus new, feeling versus reason, body versus song …
Along the way of this demonstration, I hope to offer a model of how film analysis might be done, or at least how I try to do it: its possible protocols, procedures, pay-offs. Seven and a half cinematic minutes with Ghatak, plus around two musical minutes with Abdullah Ibrahim, amounting to around sixty minutes … Adrian Martin, ‘Seven and a Half Minutes with Ritwik Ghatak (An Apprenticeship in Magic)‘
Today’s entry here at Film Studies For Free — a list of links to openly accessible studies of the work of the great Bengali filmmaker Ritwik Ghatak — was very much inspired by the online availability of a podcast of a lecture by Adrian Martin, Associate Professor in Film and Television Studies and co-director of the Research Unit in Film Culture and Theory at Monash University. In the lecture Martin discusses a scene in Ghatak’s Subarnarekha (lit. “Golden Line/Thread”, India, 1962-65).
The sequence discussed by Martin may be found at 7:40 in the first of the two clips embedded above, continuing up to around six minutes through the second clip. As the above lecture abstract indicates, along the way, Martin says many important things about the practices of film criticism/analysis, and, indeed, about Film Studies more broadly. Great work, and thanks to Arts at Monash University for making it available. [Update: August 2011 – here’s a link to the video recording of the lecture. Right click on the link to save to your computer for viewing later).
- Omar Ahmed, ‘AJANTRIK / PATHETIC FALLACY (Dir. Ritwik Ghatak, 1958, India) – Man and Machine ‘, Ellipsis: The Accents of Cinema, December 7, 2009
- Anustup Basu, Mantras of the Metropole: Geo-televisuality and Contemporary Indian Cinema, PhD Thesis, University of Pittsburgh, 2005 (see chapters 3 and 6)
- Budhaditya Chattopadhyay, ‘Sound Memories: In Search of Lost Sounds in Indian Cinema’, Journal of the Moving Image, Number 6, 2007
- Ann R. David, ‘Beyond the Silver Screen: Bollywood and Filmi Dance in the UK‘, South Asia Research, 2007; 27, 5, 5-24
- Kevin B. Lee, ‘997 (132). Subarnarekha / The Golden Thread (1965, Ritwik Ghatak)’, Shooting Down Pictures, February 8, 2010
- Adrian Martin, ‘Seven and a Half Minutes with Ritwik Ghatak (An Apprenticeship in Magic)‘, Film and Television Studies ‘Under Construction’ Seminar Series, Monash University, June 8, 2011(mp3) (video version)
- Erin O’Donnell, ‘“Woman” and “homeland” in Ritwik Ghatak’s films: Constructing post-Independence Bengali cultural identity’, from Jump Cut, Issue 47, 2004
- Ashish Rajadhyaksha, ‘An Aesthetic for Film Sound in India’, Journal of the Moving Image, Number 6, 2007
- Raks Media Collective, ‘Dreams and disguises, as usual’, Sarai Reader 2005: Bare Acts
- Raks Media Collective, ‘Stammer, Mumble, Sweat, Scrawl, and Tic‘, e-Flux, 11, 2008
- Anindya Raychaudhuri,‘Resisting the Resistible: Re-Writing Myths of Partition in the Works of Ritwik Ghatak’, Social Semiotics, 19:4, December 2009