VIEW, the Journal of European Television History and Culture: European Television Memories


Screen Heritage Goes App! The Curzon Memories Project

Engaging video about the Curzon Memories App, a practice-research project by Charlotte Crofts, funded by the Digital Cultures Research Centre and the University of the West of England. The video was made by Sy Taffel.
My thinking about locative media as a means of exploring screen heritage is informed by the “apparatus theorists” of the 1970s (Baudry, Comolli, Heath, Metz, Mulvey, Wollen, all collected in Philip Rosen’s seminal collection Narrative, Apparatus, Ideology: A Film Reader, 1972), who were interested in the cinematic apparatus both in terms of the equipment of production and projection and in terms of the conditions of spectatorship (the engaged spectator in a darkened communal auditorium). At the [Curzon Memories App] project’s heart is a concern with both the culture and technologies of seeing: how we might use new screen media as a lens through which to understand the old cinematic apparatus and in turn historicise the new media. The idea is to use locative media to add depth to the everyday architecture of the cinema beyond that which is immediately apparent, and so enhance visitors’ experience and understanding of the cinema and the collection. In this sense, the project is centrally concerned with the interface between cultural memory and the technological imaginary of the moving image. [from Charlotte Crofts, ‘Technologies of Seeing the Past: The Curzon Memories App’, Paper published in the proceedings of the Electronic Visualisation and the Arts, London 2011 pp. 163-4]

One of the cinemas cited [in David Bordwell’s recent post about the threat of digital conversion to art house cinemas] is the Art House Cinema, in Champaign-Urbana, a University town in the middle of corn fields in the mid-West (where I happened to live for a short spell […]) […].  I think it might be where I first saw Terence Mallick’s Days of Heaven as a girl of nine, and have been haunted by it ever since. This, combined with my involvement with the Curzon, and indeed the Whiteladies Picture House campaign, made me feel how urgent it is to preserve screen heritage beyond the conservation of the films themselves – which is in itself incredibly important – but there’s something rather pressing about preserving the cinema-going experience in today’s multi-screen world: the apparatus of cinema, the built environment, the technologies; which is at the heart of the Curzon Memories App, and Projection Hero in particular. [Charlotte Crofts, ”, The Curzon Project, January 31, 2012]

I hadn’t really thought I was making a documentary the whole time I was developing the app, but with hindsight, my experience as a filmmaker couldn’t help but inform the project and trying to articulate my work […] really helped me to see that ‘experience design’ is essentially an extension of documentary practice – we all want to move people and make them see the world differently – I’m just excited about doing that in the actual place you are interested in exploring. [Charlotte Crofts, ‘Curzon Memories App as interactive documentary’, The Curzon Project, April 12, 2012]

[I]t is quite clear that printed works of reference are a thing of the past. I do not here mean, of course, the polders of misinformation contained in the poorly triangulated written texts of Wikipedia: rather I have in mind the breathtaking and illuminating elegance of Touch Publications and Charlotte Croft’s ‘Geo-spatial, Geo-temporal’ app to guide a tourist around a physical site. Why slap a guide-book around when your phone will tell you everything you could possibly want to know about what you are looking at. This will not destroy the publishing, on whatever platform, of unenhanced alphanumeric texts but it surely must transform the presentation of printed information. (And, ok, it’s the first major change in that since the codex started to replace the scroll in the 4th Christian century – this technicism stuff is easy to fall in with.) And Charlotte’s application isn’t going to make the tourist a citizen of the world but it will immeasurably improve their experience of travel. [Brian Winston on i-Docs 2012. Wikipedia link added by FSFF ! :)]

Like Brian Winston in the last of the above quotations, Film Studies For Free (an ever-upbeat Cassandra) has seen the future: it comes on little screens!! 

OK, so maybe that’s not such an original (or all-encompassing) prophesy. But FSFF really has seen a remarkable, and original, slice of the future of ‘pervasive‘ and ‘locative‘, mobile Film Studies. 

The little screens in question here, with their “virtual-experience-design”, are very much attached (in this particular project) to a very memorable, big screen, in three dimensions, with its associated history and real-world experiences.

The Curzon Memories App, the beautifully designed outcome of an innovative research project by Charlotte CroftsSenior Lecturer in Film Studies and Video Production at the University of the West of England, provides a “locative media experience” designed to enhance visits to the Curzon Community Cinema, Clevedon, and its ‘Living History’ collection of cinema technology, through “context-aware oral history and dramatisation”.

The above video sets out brilliantly the scope and functionality of the app. FSFF‘s favourite-sounding element is Projection Hero, a “miniature cinema installation which you can manipulate with your phone – open the curtains, dim the lights and play the movies – including the infamous Pearl and Dean ‘Asteroid’ theme and poignant interviews with retired projectionists”. It looks forward to trying this out in the cinema itself.

The App is free. Just click on the relevant link, below, to access and download it. It’s very much worthy of your exploration and support, even if you live nowhere near Clevedon – a lovely, little, English town not far from which FSFF‘s author happened to grow up, and in which she was forever traumatised by X: The Man with the X-Ray Eyes… 

If you like it, please take time to rate it, and leave an appreciative comment, too, at the digital store of your choice. 

The further links below will take you to much more information about, as well as research consideration of, this wonderful project and will also tell you all about Crofts’ latest, innovative, project. 

Cambridge Film Studies Videos: Godard, Renoir, Literature and Film, Film and Forgetting, Representation of War in Film

Framestill from Scénario du film “Passion”/Script for the film “Passion” (Jean-Luc Godard, 1982). This film is discussed by Libby Saxton in her paper on gesture in Godard’s films

Today, Film Studies For Free joyously tips the wink to its readers about the online availability of video recordings of papers from research events held at the Centre for Research in the Arts, Social Sciences and Humanities (CRASSH) at the University of Cambridge. 

These valuable online resources will clearly be added to in the coming months and years so while FSFF will keep its beady eye trained for the appearance of future recordings of note, its readers might like to do the same with their own beady eyes.

Longtime Companion? HIV/AIDS in thirty years of cinema, media and culture

Images from two ‘AIDS film dramas’: above, Longtime Companion (Norman René, 1989), a film which, as Emmanuel Levy puts it, carried “the burden of being the first [widely distributed] theatrical movie to deal directly with AIDS”; below, a frame grab from Yesterday (Darrell Roodt, 2004), about a Zulu woman living with AIDS. Read Jean Stuart‘s and Olaia Cores Calvo‘s articles on this film.

It was [30] years ago, in the summer of 1981, when society as a whole[, including] the scientific community[,] was faced with an unknown disease that came later to be known as Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Several films […] reflected the initial fears and uncertainty, the responses of the different social groups, the fight against ignorance, the [demand for] access to treatment and the suffering of the infected individuals and their families […] due to this disease. Taking into account that these movies were filmed when these epidemics took place they can actually be considered as […] historical documents that deserve [to be] analysed by the generations to come. Films such as And The Band Played On; Longtime Companion; Common Threads: Stories from the Quilt; Les Nuits Fauves; Angels in America; Yesterday and My Brother… Nikhil have marked [30] years of AIDS history that should not be forgotten by the world. [Adapted from António Pais de Lacerda, ‘Cinema as an Historical Document: AIDS in 25 years of Cinema’, Journal of Medicine and Movies, 2 (2006): 102-113; hyperlinks added by FSFF]

Film Studies For Free today commemorates the twenty-third World AIDS Day in the thirtieth year since the identification of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, or AIDS. The Human immunodeficiency virus [HIV], the lentivirus which causes the syndrome, was identified two years later, in 1983.

FSFF marks this anniversary year with the below entry of links to scholarly resources on the figuration of AIDS/HIV in cinema and culture.

Today’s posting was also inspired by a series of film screenings and discussions on ‘AIDS and its Melodramas’ that have been taking place at the University of Sussex, UK, organised by Michael Lawrence and John David Rhodes. These academic events will continue next term with screenings of Fatal Love (1991), And the Band Played On (1993), Philadelphia (1993) and, one of FSFF‘s favourites,  Boys on the Side (1995). Please email FSFF if you’d like more details.

      Memory Screens: New Issue of IMAGE AND NARRATIVE

      Frame grab from 1975 (Shaun Wilson, version 1 (2005), DV as single channel DVD, colour, sound, 5mins). Visit Shaun Wilson‘s website here and read his article about ‘home movies’ here

      The concept of memory screens is an overarching term exploring the relationship between forms of media, viewers, practitioners and memory. The notion of memory screens alludes to the ways in which memories become remembered, layered, forgotten and transformed. The range of articles in this volume reflects the relationship between memory and history, both public and personal. [‘Thematic Cluster: Introduction’ by Teresa Forde]

      Film Studies For Free continues to be impressed by the excellence of the online journal Image and Narrative which has recently published a special issue entitled Memory Screens.

      FSFF particularly appreciated film and video artist Shaun Wilson’s essay on the art of vintage home movies, Jenny Chamarette’s study of the dynamics of the ‘spectre’ or ‘spectral body’ of the auteurist figure of Agnès Varda, Peter Kravanja’s exploration of narrative contingencies in Rohmer and Akerman and Teresa Forde and Erin Bell‘s discussions of memory and British television. But this is a very high quality issue throughout and, as always at I and N, particularly characterised by the thoughtful integration of close analysis and film and moving image theory.

      Image and Narrative, Vol 12, No 2 (2011): Memory Screens

      Table of Contents

      • ‘Thematic Cluster: Introduction’ by Teresa Forde ABSTRACT PDF
      • ‘Remixing Memory through Home Movies’ by Shaun Wilson ABSTRACT PDF
      • ‘Video Installation, Memory and Storytelling: the viewer as narrator’ by Diane Charleson ABSTRACT PDF
      • ‘Spectral bodies, temporalised spaces: Agnès Varda’s motile gestures of mourning and memorial’ by Jenny Chamarette ABSTRACT PDF
      • ‘Television and memory: history programming and contemporary identities’ by Erin Bell ABSTRACTPDF
      • ‘Television Dramas as Memory Screens’ by Teresa Forde ABSTRACT PDF
      • ‘The Lives of Others: re-remembering the German Democratic Republic’  by Margaret Montgomerie and Anne- Kathrin Reck ABSTRACT PDF
      • ‘Nostalgic [re]remembering: film fan cultures and the affective reiteration of popular film histories’ by Nathan Hunt ABSTRACT PDF

      Various Articles

      • ‘Cinema, Contingencies, Metaphysics’ by Peter Kravanja ABSTRACT PDF

      Review Articles

      • Hillary Chute’s Ambivalent Idiom of Witness’ by Charlotte Pylyser  ABSTRACT PDF
      • ‘Naissances de la bande dessinée de William Hogarth à Winsor McCay’ by Pascal Lefèvre ABSTRACT PDF

      30+ articles from the Journal of Aesthetics and Culture

      Frame grab from The Wind (Victor Sjöström, 1928). Read Bo Florin’s article on this film

      [Traditionally, aesthetics] has been based on national perspectives and contexts, as well as contained within the limits of specific disciplines. However, the changing society has made this focus all too narrow. Due to globalization, media and territories merge and move in new ways, where regional, national, international, and global perspectives increasingly integrate. New contexts and new aesthetic strategies are also created, and traditional boundaries and hierarchies become transgressed, for example, between high brow and popular culture, or between art and technology. Aesthetics as well as culture thus need to be discussed and interpreted across the disciplines, through different media, over territorial borders. Finally, this is also a strong argument for Open Access publishing: to constitute a global platform and an interface for interdisciplinary discourse—free for anybody to read. [from first JAC Editorial by Astrid Söderbergh Widding, Lars Gustaf Andersson and John Sundholm]

      Film Studies For Free had been meaning to post something about the Journal of Aesthetics and Culture for quite a while. It’s an online open access journal, hence one very much after this blog’s’s heart, with a high percentage of very good quality film-studies related articles that FSFF has frequently linked to on Twitter.

      Today, JAC published an excellent dossier on Transnational Cultural Memory, an event which provided a wonderful prompt to gather together, in one place, links to everything that JAC has published to date. And below, that is just what you will find.

      FSFF has also added JAC to its permanent listing of excellent, Open Access film and moving image studies journals

      Vol. 1 (2009)

      Vol. 2 (2010)

      Vol 3 (2011)

      >New Issue of Scope!


      Image from Good Bye, Lenin! ( Wolfgang Becker, 2003). Read Kevin L. Ferguson’s fascinating article on the film: Home Movies: Historical Space and the Mother’s Memory

      Good Bye Lenin!, a film commonly read as a political fable of East German nostalgia, is rather for me a successful example of autobiographical narrative that balances maternal loss and a boy’s coming to manhood, framing this transition in and through home movies. As such, it provides a much-needed positive model for cinema’s use of mothers and memory. [Kevin L. Ferguson]

      Film Studies For Free has been far too quiet lately, but that’s about to change, people! Let us kick off the burst of activity with FSFF‘s usual update about one of its very favourite openly accessible, film-scholarly journals, SCOPE: And Online Journal of Film and TV Studies, run by those wonderful people at the Department of Culture, Film and Media, University of Nottingham. The full Table of Contents is reproduced below for your convenient reading pleasure.

      Scope, Issue 18, 2010


      Art Cinema as Institution, Redux: Art Houses, Film Festivals, and Film Studies
      David Andrews
      The Pinnacle of Popular Taste?: The Importance of Confessions of a Window Cleaner
      Sian Barber
      Walking the Line: Negotiating Celebrity in the Country Music Biopic
      Molly Brost
      Home Movies: Historical Space and the Mother’s Memory
      Kevin L. Ferguson
      An Aristocratic Plod, Erstwhile Commandos and Ladies who Craved Excitement: Hammer Films’ Post-War BBC Crime Series and Serial Adaptations
      David Mann


      Book Reviews

      “May Contain Graphic Material”: Comic Books, Graphic Novels, and Film By M. Keith Booker
      Reviewer: David Simmons
      Investigating Firefly and Serenity By Rhonda Wilcox and Tanya Cochran (eds.) & Special Issue on Firefly and Serenity
      Reviewer: Ronald Helfrich
      Black Space: Imagining Race in Science Fiction Film By Adilifu Nama & Mixed Race Hollywood
      Reviewer: Augusto Ciuffo de Oliveira
      Inherent Vice: Bootleg Histories of Videotape and Copyright By Lucas Hilderbrand & From Betamax to Blockbuster: Video Stores and the Invention of Movies on Video
      Reviewer: Daniel Herbert
      Stanley Cavell’s American Dream: Shakespeare, Philosophy, and Hollywood Movies By Lawrence F. Rhu
      Reviewer: Áine Kelly
      Scorsese By Roger Ebert
      Reviewer: John Berra
      Contemporary British Cinema: From Heritage to Horror By James Leggott & Roman Polanski
      Reviewer: Paul Newland
      Cities In Transition: The Moving Image and the Modern Metropolis By Andrew Webber and Emma Wilson (eds.) & Cinematic Countrysides (Inside Popular Film)
      Reviewer: Peter C. Pugsley
      Religion and Film: Cinema and the Re-Creation of the World By S. Brent Plate & Crowd Scenes: Movies and Mass Politics
      Reviewer: Douglas C. MacLeod, Jr.
      Italian Neorealism: Rebuilding the Cinematic City By Mark Shiel
      Reviewer: Tom Whittaker
      Independent Cinema (includes DVD of Paul Cronin’s Film as a Subversive Art: Amos Vogel and Cinema 16) By D.K. Holm & Declarations of Independence: American Cinema and the Partiality of Independent Production
      Reviewer: Carl Wilson
      Seventies British Cinema By Robert Shail (ed.)
      Reviewer: Lawrence Webb
      Photography and Cinema (Exposures) By David Campany  & Still Moving: Between Cinema and Photography
      Reviewer: Tom Slevin
      Russians in Hollywood, Hollywood’s Russians: Biography of an Image By Harlow Robinson & How the Soviet Man was Unmade: Cultural Fantasy and Male Subjectivity under Stalin
      Reviewer: Brian Faucette
      A Companion to Spanish Cinema By Bernard P.E. Bentley & Gender and Spanish Cinema
      Reviewer: Abigail Keating
      The Moguls and the Dictators: Hollywood and the Coming of World War II By David Welky & The Hidden Art of Hollywood: In Defense of the Studio Era Film
      Reviewer: Hannah Durkin
      Neil Jordan By Maria Pramaggiore & The Cinema of Neil Jordan: Dark Carnival
      Reviewer: Steve Masters
      Palestinian Cinema: Landscape, Trauma, and Memory By Nurith Gertz and George Khleifi
      Reviewer: Omar Kholeif
      The Cinema of Jan Švankmajer: Dark Alchemy (Directors’ Cuts) By Peter Hames & Hungarian Cinema: From Coffee House to Multiplex
      Reviewer: Jonathan Owen
      Movie Greats: A Critical Study of Classic Cinema By Philip Gillett  & Inventing Film Studies
      Reviewer: Steven Rybin


      Film Reviews

      Generation Kill
      Reviewer: Sheamus Sweeney
      Diary of the Dead
      Reviewer: Sigmund Shen
      Rich and Strange & Stage Fright
      Reviewer: Judy Beth Morris
      Blood: The Last Vampire
      Reviewer: Kia-Choong Teo
      Reviewer: Alice Mills
      Before and After
      Reviewer: Clodagh M. Weldon


      Conference Reports

      Bloodlines: British Horror Past and Present, An International Conference and Film Festival at De Montfort University and Phoenix Square, Leicester, 4 – 5 March 2010
      Reporter: Michael Ahmed
      IMAGEing Reality, University of Navarra, Spain, 22– 24 October 2009
      Reporter: Stefano Odorico
      The Moving Image: Reconfiguring Spaces of Loss and Mourning in the 21st Century, Centre for Research in the Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Cambridge, 26-27 February 2010
      Reporter: Jenny Chamarette
      NECS 2009 3rd Annual Conference: Locating Media, Lund, Sweden, 25 – 28 June, 2009
      Reporter: Andrea Virginás
      New Waves: XII International Film and Media Conference, Transylvania, Romania, 22 – 23 October 2009
      Reporter: Hajnal Kiraly
      Open Graves, Open Minds: Vampires and the Undead in Modern Culture, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, April 16 – 17 2010
      Reporter: Darren Elliott-Smith
      Re-Living Disaster, Birbkeck College, London, 29-30 April 2010
      Reporter: Ozlem Koksal
      SCMS @ 50/LA (Society for Cinema and Media Studies): Archiving the Future, Mobilizing the Past, Los Angleles, California, US, March 10-14, 2010
      Reporter: Jason Kelly Roberts
      SCMS @ 50/LA (Society for Cinema and Media Studies), Los Angeles, California, March 10-14, 2010
      Reporter: Martin L. Johnson
      Straight Outta Uttoxeter: Studying Shane Meadows, University of East Anglia, 15 – 16 April 2010
      Reporter: Emma Sutton


      >War, Conflict and Commemoration in the Age of Digital Reproduction


      Image from Avalon (Mamoru Oshii, 2001)

      Below are links to some of the most interesting items to have come Film Studies For Free‘s way in the last weeks: a special issue of the high quality online, Open Access journal Digital Icons: Studies in Russian, Eurasian, and Central European New Media on War, Conflict and Commemoration. Not all of the items are film-related, though most are, in some way (asbtracts are included for easy skimming to see which). And there are two great essays on Mamoru Oshii‘s 2001 film Avalon, which FSFF particularly rated.

      Issue 4, 2010: War, Conflict and Commemoration in the Age of Digital Reproduction (guest-edited by Adi Kuntsman (University of Manchester).)

      4.0 Editorial | Vlad Strukov

      4.1 Online Memories, Digital Conflicts and the Cybertouch of War | Adi Kuntsman 

      This opening essay addresses the political and intellectual necessity that enabled me to assemble this special issue. Firstly, I argue for the need to examine the role of digital media in negotiating and commemorating wars in countries outside of the USA and Western Europe and in languages other than English. Secondly, drawing on some recent developments in research on digital media, on one hand, and war, conflict and commemoration, on the other, I claim the importance of examining the two fields together. I argue for a complex approach that would capture the ways digital media and computer technologies affect the warfare itself, its social perception as well as the ways of remembrance and commemoration. I also present several theoretical concepts – cyberscapes of memory, digital battlefields, the aftermath, passionate politics and the cybertouch of war – and outline the structure of the special issue.

      4.2 The Commemoration of Nazi ‘Children’s Euthanasia’ Online and On Site | Lutz Kaelber

      An integral part of the German National Socialist ‘bio-political developmental dictatorship’ programme (Schmuhl 2008), ‘euthanasia’ involved the murder of over 300,000 physically or mentally disabled persons in National Socialist Germany and its occupied territories, including children in ‘special children’s wards’ (Kinderfachabteilungen). Using the concept of traumascape as past trauma embodied at a site and brought into the present through commemoration, this article analyses the emergence of virtual traumascapes created by local memory agents who use new digital media as a means to represent these crimes and commemorate the victims of ‘special children’s wards’ in Germany, Austria, Poland and the Czech Republic. This article shows that virtual traumascapes have contributed to a diverse landscape of memory concerning the murder of disabled children and youths described in five case studies. It also briefly discusses their impact on national memory regimes and the future of commemoration. 

      4.3 World War 2.0: Commemorating War and Holocaust in Poland Through Facebook | Dieter De Bruyn 

      The Internet seems to have become the area where instances of individual and collective remembrance, of private and public commemoration, and of memory and postmemory intersect in a new and effective way. This article explores two Polish examples of World War II and Holocaust commemoration that have recently been issued on Facebook: the Warsaw Rising commemorative campaign and the educational project on the young Holocaust victim Henio Zytomirski. As the analysis demonstrates, what determines the value of such online projects is their performative effectiveness. The examination of both examples aims to contribute to the current debate on cultural memory, in which the focus is increasingly on the dynamical and processual character of remembering, rather than on memory as a static product.

      4.4 Past Wars in the Russian Blogosphere: On the Emergence of Cosmopolitan Memory | Elena Trubina 

      In Russia, for decades, the collective memory of World War II has served two major functions. It has provided the major source of legitimatising the state and the ethical ground for sustaining the collective identity of those whose country now is very different from the one defended by their grandparents. Along with the state-imposed versions of the war and tired rituals and clichéd expressions of pride and gratitude, new ways of reflecting on the war began emerging. These are facilitated by new socio-technical practices made possible by globalisation and, in particular, by the Internet. Based on an analysis of selected Russian-language blogs, this article argues that although the nationalistic master narratives continue to function as glue for the nation, they become combined with stories and recollections that are attuned to the growing openness and interconnectedness of the world, problematising exclusionary renderings of the country’s contribution to the victory.

      4.5 Deadly Game along the Wistula: East European Imagery in Oshii’s ‘Avalon’ (2001) | Gérard Kraus 

      Mamoru Oshii’s Avalon stands firmly engrained in the director’s science fiction oeuvre of completely visually controlled films, focusing on a strong female protagonist shown in critical situations. At the same time the film marks Oshii’s return to live action cinema and takes him outside of Asia. This essay seeks to combine biographical information on the director with an aesthetic analysis of some of the images created for the purpose of this film. In particular the essay addresses Oshii’s interests in the relations between futuristic technologies and militarised societies, and his use of Polish and Eastern European imagery. I will argue that their combination can be seen as remediating and recontextualising images of war and conflict for a new generation that, through digital media, has developed a new dynamic relationship with history and the conflicts that build Europe and the world.

      4.6 Oshii’s ‘Avalon’ (2001) and Military-Entertainment Technoculture | Patrick Crogan 

      This essay takes Mamoru Oshii’s Avalon (2001) as a starting point for consideration of the impact of simulational interactive media on contemporary technoculture. The connections made in the film between virtual reality games and military research and development, and its quasi-simulational modelling of various historical ‘Polands’ in re-sequencing a dystopian end of history are the most valuable resources it brings to this study of how simulation’s predominant development represents a major challenge to the forms of critical cultural reflection associated with narrative-based forms of recording and interrogating experience. Analysis of the methods and rhetorics of simulation design in the military-industrial (and now military-entertainment) complex will elaborate the nature and stakes of this challenge for today’s globalising technoculture of ‘militainment’.

      4.7 ‘The Weight of Meaninglessness’ | Naida Zukić 

      The Weight of Meaninglessness is a video performance that evokes the atrocities of the recent Bosnian history in an effort to highlight the ethical urgencies, complexities and paradoxes of externalising trauma within a site that collapses meaning and creates possibilities for the return of traumatic memory. The performance shows the artist violently and continuously scrubbing clean her permanently marked arm, withstanding bodily pain and struggling to breathe. The video also confronts the viewer with Srebrenica Genocide; the images of mass graves render the memory of the atrocity traumatising in its insufferable intensity. In the moment of examining trauma and locating its agency, the artist lays bare the paradox of violent memories that can only be externalised through inflicting violence on oneself. The artist’s essay addresses the historical and ideological conditions under which The Weight of Meaninglessness critiques and exercises violence.

      4.8 ‘Roma Snapshots: A Day in Sarajevo’ | Vanja Čelebičić 

      The recent war in Bosnia-Herzegovina serves as an undercurrent in this short ethnographic film Roma Snapshots: a Day in Sarajevo. The film attempts to enquire into Sarajevan Roma’s sense of identification, belonging and memory. It portrays the daily lives of Roma through snapshots of their concurrent realities, where painful memories, laughter and religious beliefs exist side by side. The film comprises of simultaneous screening of four episodes, drawing attention to the filmmaker’s dilemma of how to best represent her subjects and which aspects of their lives to highlight. The film addresses visual anthropology’s concerns regarding ways of portraying reality and challenges the standard narrative approach to documentary filmmaking. Roma Snapshots: a Day in Sarajevo is accompanied by the filmmaker’s reflexive essay on anthropological filmmaking, digital media and life in post-war zones.

      4.9 The Portrayal of Russian Hackers During Cyber Conflict Incidents | Athina Karatzogianni 

      This article analyses various cyber conflicts and cyber crime incidents attributed to Russian hackers, such as the Estonian and Georgian cyber conflicts and the ‘Climategate hack’. The article argues that Russian hackers were blamed by dozens of outlets for the Climategate hack, because that was consistent with global media coverage of cyber crime incidents which portrayed Russians as highly powerful hackers responsible for many hacking incidents. This narrative also was congruent with the new Cold War rhetoric that consistently takes issue with Russia acting on its geopolitical interests. These interests are seen to manifest themselves in Russia’s objection to countries, formerly under its influence, participating in the NATO alliance and its seemingly obstructive stance at the Copenhagen summit on climate change. 

      4.10 A Study on a Russian-American Non-Reflexive Discourse | Olga Baysha 

      This study investigates one such case study – the outburst of anti-Americanism among Russia Internet users during the Russia-Georgia military crisis of 2008. The paper analyzes the discussions of Washington Post articles at the Washington PostForeign Media Russian Internet site. The study shows that, despite numerous attempts by Russian users to deliver their messages to the American readers, their postings were ignored by the American users and global dialogue did not occur. It is this exclusion from the conversation, together with the denigration of Russia by writers in the United States that led to the intensification of anti-American sentiments among the Russians. The study makes clear that for the establishment of effective global public spheres access to new communication technologies and knowledge of English are inadequate, unless accompanied by the willingness to listen to others and a desire to understand them.   

      4.11 Web Wars: Digital Diasporas and the Language of Memory | Ellen Rutten 

      Web Wars: Digital Diasporas and the Language of Memory in Russia & Ukraine is a three-year research project within the collaborative HERA-funded project Memory at War: Cultural Dynamics in Russia, Poland & Ukraine. Led by Dr Alexander Etkind (Cambridge University), this project zeroes in on the ongoing memory wars between Russia, Ukraine, and Poland – nations where political conflicts take the shape of heated debates about the recent past. For Memory at War, five European universities – Cambridge, Helsinki, Tartu, Groningen and Bergen – cooperate to scrutinize Eastern Europe’s memory wars from varying angles. Web Wars is the Bergen pendant, which focuses on their outlines in digital media, and Russian and Ukrainian social media in particular. This submission maps the project design, methods and research objectives.

      4.12 Book Reviews