VIEW, the Journal of European Television History and Culture: European Television Memories


Screen Heritage Goes App! The Curzon Memories Project

Engaging video about the Curzon Memories App, a practice-research project by Charlotte Crofts, funded by the Digital Cultures Research Centre and the University of the West of England. The video was made by Sy Taffel.
My thinking about locative media as a means of exploring screen heritage is informed by the “apparatus theorists” of the 1970s (Baudry, Comolli, Heath, Metz, Mulvey, Wollen, all collected in Philip Rosen’s seminal collection Narrative, Apparatus, Ideology: A Film Reader, 1972), who were interested in the cinematic apparatus both in terms of the equipment of production and projection and in terms of the conditions of spectatorship (the engaged spectator in a darkened communal auditorium). At the [Curzon Memories App] project’s heart is a concern with both the culture and technologies of seeing: how we might use new screen media as a lens through which to understand the old cinematic apparatus and in turn historicise the new media. The idea is to use locative media to add depth to the everyday architecture of the cinema beyond that which is immediately apparent, and so enhance visitors’ experience and understanding of the cinema and the collection. In this sense, the project is centrally concerned with the interface between cultural memory and the technological imaginary of the moving image. [from Charlotte Crofts, ‘Technologies of Seeing the Past: The Curzon Memories App’, Paper published in the proceedings of the Electronic Visualisation and the Arts, London 2011 pp. 163-4]

One of the cinemas cited [in David Bordwell’s recent post about the threat of digital conversion to art house cinemas] is the Art House Cinema, in Champaign-Urbana, a University town in the middle of corn fields in the mid-West (where I happened to live for a short spell […]) […].  I think it might be where I first saw Terence Mallick’s Days of Heaven as a girl of nine, and have been haunted by it ever since. This, combined with my involvement with the Curzon, and indeed the Whiteladies Picture House campaign, made me feel how urgent it is to preserve screen heritage beyond the conservation of the films themselves – which is in itself incredibly important – but there’s something rather pressing about preserving the cinema-going experience in today’s multi-screen world: the apparatus of cinema, the built environment, the technologies; which is at the heart of the Curzon Memories App, and Projection Hero in particular. [Charlotte Crofts, ”, The Curzon Project, January 31, 2012]

I hadn’t really thought I was making a documentary the whole time I was developing the app, but with hindsight, my experience as a filmmaker couldn’t help but inform the project and trying to articulate my work […] really helped me to see that ‘experience design’ is essentially an extension of documentary practice – we all want to move people and make them see the world differently – I’m just excited about doing that in the actual place you are interested in exploring. [Charlotte Crofts, ‘Curzon Memories App as interactive documentary’, The Curzon Project, April 12, 2012]

[I]t is quite clear that printed works of reference are a thing of the past. I do not here mean, of course, the polders of misinformation contained in the poorly triangulated written texts of Wikipedia: rather I have in mind the breathtaking and illuminating elegance of Touch Publications and Charlotte Croft’s ‘Geo-spatial, Geo-temporal’ app to guide a tourist around a physical site. Why slap a guide-book around when your phone will tell you everything you could possibly want to know about what you are looking at. This will not destroy the publishing, on whatever platform, of unenhanced alphanumeric texts but it surely must transform the presentation of printed information. (And, ok, it’s the first major change in that since the codex started to replace the scroll in the 4th Christian century – this technicism stuff is easy to fall in with.) And Charlotte’s application isn’t going to make the tourist a citizen of the world but it will immeasurably improve their experience of travel. [Brian Winston on i-Docs 2012. Wikipedia link added by FSFF ! :)]

Like Brian Winston in the last of the above quotations, Film Studies For Free (an ever-upbeat Cassandra) has seen the future: it comes on little screens!! 

OK, so maybe that’s not such an original (or all-encompassing) prophesy. But FSFF really has seen a remarkable, and original, slice of the future of ‘pervasive‘ and ‘locative‘, mobile Film Studies. 

The little screens in question here, with their “virtual-experience-design”, are very much attached (in this particular project) to a very memorable, big screen, in three dimensions, with its associated history and real-world experiences.

The Curzon Memories App, the beautifully designed outcome of an innovative research project by Charlotte CroftsSenior Lecturer in Film Studies and Video Production at the University of the West of England, provides a “locative media experience” designed to enhance visits to the Curzon Community Cinema, Clevedon, and its ‘Living History’ collection of cinema technology, through “context-aware oral history and dramatisation”.

The above video sets out brilliantly the scope and functionality of the app. FSFF‘s favourite-sounding element is Projection Hero, a “miniature cinema installation which you can manipulate with your phone – open the curtains, dim the lights and play the movies – including the infamous Pearl and Dean ‘Asteroid’ theme and poignant interviews with retired projectionists”. It looks forward to trying this out in the cinema itself.

The App is free. Just click on the relevant link, below, to access and download it. It’s very much worthy of your exploration and support, even if you live nowhere near Clevedon – a lovely, little, English town not far from which FSFF‘s author happened to grow up, and in which she was forever traumatised by X: The Man with the X-Ray Eyes… 

If you like it, please take time to rate it, and leave an appreciative comment, too, at the digital store of your choice. 

The further links below will take you to much more information about, as well as research consideration of, this wonderful project and will also tell you all about Crofts’ latest, innovative, project. 

Memory Screens: New Issue of IMAGE AND NARRATIVE

Frame grab from 1975 (Shaun Wilson, version 1 (2005), DV as single channel DVD, colour, sound, 5mins). Visit Shaun Wilson‘s website here and read his article about ‘home movies’ here

The concept of memory screens is an overarching term exploring the relationship between forms of media, viewers, practitioners and memory. The notion of memory screens alludes to the ways in which memories become remembered, layered, forgotten and transformed. The range of articles in this volume reflects the relationship between memory and history, both public and personal. [‘Thematic Cluster: Introduction’ by Teresa Forde]

Film Studies For Free continues to be impressed by the excellence of the online journal Image and Narrative which has recently published a special issue entitled Memory Screens.

FSFF particularly appreciated film and video artist Shaun Wilson’s essay on the art of vintage home movies, Jenny Chamarette’s study of the dynamics of the ‘spectre’ or ‘spectral body’ of the auteurist figure of Agnès Varda, Peter Kravanja’s exploration of narrative contingencies in Rohmer and Akerman and Teresa Forde and Erin Bell‘s discussions of memory and British television. But this is a very high quality issue throughout and, as always at I and N, particularly characterised by the thoughtful integration of close analysis and film and moving image theory.

Image and Narrative, Vol 12, No 2 (2011): Memory Screens

Table of Contents

  • ‘Thematic Cluster: Introduction’ by Teresa Forde ABSTRACT PDF
  • ‘Remixing Memory through Home Movies’ by Shaun Wilson ABSTRACT PDF
  • ‘Video Installation, Memory and Storytelling: the viewer as narrator’ by Diane Charleson ABSTRACT PDF
  • ‘Spectral bodies, temporalised spaces: Agnès Varda’s motile gestures of mourning and memorial’ by Jenny Chamarette ABSTRACT PDF
  • ‘Television and memory: history programming and contemporary identities’ by Erin Bell ABSTRACTPDF
  • ‘Television Dramas as Memory Screens’ by Teresa Forde ABSTRACT PDF
  • ‘The Lives of Others: re-remembering the German Democratic Republic’  by Margaret Montgomerie and Anne- Kathrin Reck ABSTRACT PDF
  • ‘Nostalgic [re]remembering: film fan cultures and the affective reiteration of popular film histories’ by Nathan Hunt ABSTRACT PDF

Various Articles

  • ‘Cinema, Contingencies, Metaphysics’ by Peter Kravanja ABSTRACT PDF

Review Articles

  • Hillary Chute’s Ambivalent Idiom of Witness’ by Charlotte Pylyser  ABSTRACT PDF
  • ‘Naissances de la bande dessinée de William Hogarth à Winsor McCay’ by Pascal Lefèvre ABSTRACT PDF

30+ articles from the Journal of Aesthetics and Culture

Frame grab from The Wind (Victor Sjöström, 1928). Read Bo Florin’s article on this film

[Traditionally, aesthetics] has been based on national perspectives and contexts, as well as contained within the limits of specific disciplines. However, the changing society has made this focus all too narrow. Due to globalization, media and territories merge and move in new ways, where regional, national, international, and global perspectives increasingly integrate. New contexts and new aesthetic strategies are also created, and traditional boundaries and hierarchies become transgressed, for example, between high brow and popular culture, or between art and technology. Aesthetics as well as culture thus need to be discussed and interpreted across the disciplines, through different media, over territorial borders. Finally, this is also a strong argument for Open Access publishing: to constitute a global platform and an interface for interdisciplinary discourse—free for anybody to read. [from first JAC Editorial by Astrid Söderbergh Widding, Lars Gustaf Andersson and John Sundholm]

Film Studies For Free had been meaning to post something about the Journal of Aesthetics and Culture for quite a while. It’s an online open access journal, hence one very much after this blog’s’s heart, with a high percentage of very good quality film-studies related articles that FSFF has frequently linked to on Twitter.

Today, JAC published an excellent dossier on Transnational Cultural Memory, an event which provided a wonderful prompt to gather together, in one place, links to everything that JAC has published to date. And below, that is just what you will find.

FSFF has also added JAC to its permanent listing of excellent, Open Access film and moving image studies journals

Vol. 1 (2009)

Vol. 2 (2010)

Vol 3 (2011)

>War, Conflict and Commemoration in the Age of Digital Reproduction


Image from Avalon (Mamoru Oshii, 2001)

Below are links to some of the most interesting items to have come Film Studies For Free‘s way in the last weeks: a special issue of the high quality online, Open Access journal Digital Icons: Studies in Russian, Eurasian, and Central European New Media on War, Conflict and Commemoration. Not all of the items are film-related, though most are, in some way (asbtracts are included for easy skimming to see which). And there are two great essays on Mamoru Oshii‘s 2001 film Avalon, which FSFF particularly rated.

Issue 4, 2010: War, Conflict and Commemoration in the Age of Digital Reproduction (guest-edited by Adi Kuntsman (University of Manchester).)

4.0 Editorial | Vlad Strukov

4.1 Online Memories, Digital Conflicts and the Cybertouch of War | Adi Kuntsman 

This opening essay addresses the political and intellectual necessity that enabled me to assemble this special issue. Firstly, I argue for the need to examine the role of digital media in negotiating and commemorating wars in countries outside of the USA and Western Europe and in languages other than English. Secondly, drawing on some recent developments in research on digital media, on one hand, and war, conflict and commemoration, on the other, I claim the importance of examining the two fields together. I argue for a complex approach that would capture the ways digital media and computer technologies affect the warfare itself, its social perception as well as the ways of remembrance and commemoration. I also present several theoretical concepts – cyberscapes of memory, digital battlefields, the aftermath, passionate politics and the cybertouch of war – and outline the structure of the special issue.

4.2 The Commemoration of Nazi ‘Children’s Euthanasia’ Online and On Site | Lutz Kaelber

An integral part of the German National Socialist ‘bio-political developmental dictatorship’ programme (Schmuhl 2008), ‘euthanasia’ involved the murder of over 300,000 physically or mentally disabled persons in National Socialist Germany and its occupied territories, including children in ‘special children’s wards’ (Kinderfachabteilungen). Using the concept of traumascape as past trauma embodied at a site and brought into the present through commemoration, this article analyses the emergence of virtual traumascapes created by local memory agents who use new digital media as a means to represent these crimes and commemorate the victims of ‘special children’s wards’ in Germany, Austria, Poland and the Czech Republic. This article shows that virtual traumascapes have contributed to a diverse landscape of memory concerning the murder of disabled children and youths described in five case studies. It also briefly discusses their impact on national memory regimes and the future of commemoration. 

4.3 World War 2.0: Commemorating War and Holocaust in Poland Through Facebook | Dieter De Bruyn 

The Internet seems to have become the area where instances of individual and collective remembrance, of private and public commemoration, and of memory and postmemory intersect in a new and effective way. This article explores two Polish examples of World War II and Holocaust commemoration that have recently been issued on Facebook: the Warsaw Rising commemorative campaign and the educational project on the young Holocaust victim Henio Zytomirski. As the analysis demonstrates, what determines the value of such online projects is their performative effectiveness. The examination of both examples aims to contribute to the current debate on cultural memory, in which the focus is increasingly on the dynamical and processual character of remembering, rather than on memory as a static product.

4.4 Past Wars in the Russian Blogosphere: On the Emergence of Cosmopolitan Memory | Elena Trubina 

In Russia, for decades, the collective memory of World War II has served two major functions. It has provided the major source of legitimatising the state and the ethical ground for sustaining the collective identity of those whose country now is very different from the one defended by their grandparents. Along with the state-imposed versions of the war and tired rituals and clichéd expressions of pride and gratitude, new ways of reflecting on the war began emerging. These are facilitated by new socio-technical practices made possible by globalisation and, in particular, by the Internet. Based on an analysis of selected Russian-language blogs, this article argues that although the nationalistic master narratives continue to function as glue for the nation, they become combined with stories and recollections that are attuned to the growing openness and interconnectedness of the world, problematising exclusionary renderings of the country’s contribution to the victory.

4.5 Deadly Game along the Wistula: East European Imagery in Oshii’s ‘Avalon’ (2001) | Gérard Kraus 

Mamoru Oshii’s Avalon stands firmly engrained in the director’s science fiction oeuvre of completely visually controlled films, focusing on a strong female protagonist shown in critical situations. At the same time the film marks Oshii’s return to live action cinema and takes him outside of Asia. This essay seeks to combine biographical information on the director with an aesthetic analysis of some of the images created for the purpose of this film. In particular the essay addresses Oshii’s interests in the relations between futuristic technologies and militarised societies, and his use of Polish and Eastern European imagery. I will argue that their combination can be seen as remediating and recontextualising images of war and conflict for a new generation that, through digital media, has developed a new dynamic relationship with history and the conflicts that build Europe and the world.

4.6 Oshii’s ‘Avalon’ (2001) and Military-Entertainment Technoculture | Patrick Crogan 

This essay takes Mamoru Oshii’s Avalon (2001) as a starting point for consideration of the impact of simulational interactive media on contemporary technoculture. The connections made in the film between virtual reality games and military research and development, and its quasi-simulational modelling of various historical ‘Polands’ in re-sequencing a dystopian end of history are the most valuable resources it brings to this study of how simulation’s predominant development represents a major challenge to the forms of critical cultural reflection associated with narrative-based forms of recording and interrogating experience. Analysis of the methods and rhetorics of simulation design in the military-industrial (and now military-entertainment) complex will elaborate the nature and stakes of this challenge for today’s globalising technoculture of ‘militainment’.

4.7 ‘The Weight of Meaninglessness’ | Naida Zukić 

The Weight of Meaninglessness is a video performance that evokes the atrocities of the recent Bosnian history in an effort to highlight the ethical urgencies, complexities and paradoxes of externalising trauma within a site that collapses meaning and creates possibilities for the return of traumatic memory. The performance shows the artist violently and continuously scrubbing clean her permanently marked arm, withstanding bodily pain and struggling to breathe. The video also confronts the viewer with Srebrenica Genocide; the images of mass graves render the memory of the atrocity traumatising in its insufferable intensity. In the moment of examining trauma and locating its agency, the artist lays bare the paradox of violent memories that can only be externalised through inflicting violence on oneself. The artist’s essay addresses the historical and ideological conditions under which The Weight of Meaninglessness critiques and exercises violence.

4.8 ‘Roma Snapshots: A Day in Sarajevo’ | Vanja Čelebičić 

The recent war in Bosnia-Herzegovina serves as an undercurrent in this short ethnographic film Roma Snapshots: a Day in Sarajevo. The film attempts to enquire into Sarajevan Roma’s sense of identification, belonging and memory. It portrays the daily lives of Roma through snapshots of their concurrent realities, where painful memories, laughter and religious beliefs exist side by side. The film comprises of simultaneous screening of four episodes, drawing attention to the filmmaker’s dilemma of how to best represent her subjects and which aspects of their lives to highlight. The film addresses visual anthropology’s concerns regarding ways of portraying reality and challenges the standard narrative approach to documentary filmmaking. Roma Snapshots: a Day in Sarajevo is accompanied by the filmmaker’s reflexive essay on anthropological filmmaking, digital media and life in post-war zones.

4.9 The Portrayal of Russian Hackers During Cyber Conflict Incidents | Athina Karatzogianni 

This article analyses various cyber conflicts and cyber crime incidents attributed to Russian hackers, such as the Estonian and Georgian cyber conflicts and the ‘Climategate hack’. The article argues that Russian hackers were blamed by dozens of outlets for the Climategate hack, because that was consistent with global media coverage of cyber crime incidents which portrayed Russians as highly powerful hackers responsible for many hacking incidents. This narrative also was congruent with the new Cold War rhetoric that consistently takes issue with Russia acting on its geopolitical interests. These interests are seen to manifest themselves in Russia’s objection to countries, formerly under its influence, participating in the NATO alliance and its seemingly obstructive stance at the Copenhagen summit on climate change. 

4.10 A Study on a Russian-American Non-Reflexive Discourse | Olga Baysha 

This study investigates one such case study – the outburst of anti-Americanism among Russia Internet users during the Russia-Georgia military crisis of 2008. The paper analyzes the discussions of Washington Post articles at the Washington PostForeign Media Russian Internet site. The study shows that, despite numerous attempts by Russian users to deliver their messages to the American readers, their postings were ignored by the American users and global dialogue did not occur. It is this exclusion from the conversation, together with the denigration of Russia by writers in the United States that led to the intensification of anti-American sentiments among the Russians. The study makes clear that for the establishment of effective global public spheres access to new communication technologies and knowledge of English are inadequate, unless accompanied by the willingness to listen to others and a desire to understand them.   

4.11 Web Wars: Digital Diasporas and the Language of Memory | Ellen Rutten 

Web Wars: Digital Diasporas and the Language of Memory in Russia & Ukraine is a three-year research project within the collaborative HERA-funded project Memory at War: Cultural Dynamics in Russia, Poland & Ukraine. Led by Dr Alexander Etkind (Cambridge University), this project zeroes in on the ongoing memory wars between Russia, Ukraine, and Poland – nations where political conflicts take the shape of heated debates about the recent past. For Memory at War, five European universities – Cambridge, Helsinki, Tartu, Groningen and Bergen – cooperate to scrutinize Eastern Europe’s memory wars from varying angles. Web Wars is the Bergen pendant, which focuses on their outlines in digital media, and Russian and Ukrainian social media in particular. This submission maps the project design, methods and research objectives.

4.12 Book Reviews

>Great e-Books on British and American cinema, and film theory and history


Image from Pleasantville (Gary Ross, 1998) [Read Paul Grainge’s wonderful essay ‘Colouring the past: Pleasantville and the textuality of media memory’ linked to below]

Film Studies For Free today sings the praises of the very marvellous Manchester University Press. MUP has an excellent record in Open Access publishing, and especially in Film Studies OA journal publishing, as previously reported by FSFF. But it is also in the process of making some of its full-length film books freely accessible. 

So far, there are two books available, one on British cinema and one on memory and popular cinema. Direct links to the PDF files of both books and full tables of their contents and contributors are given below. These links have also been added to FSFF‘s  permanent, and frequently updated, listing of Open Access film and moving image studies e-books, which now links to 90 free, scholarly tomes.

‘Memory and popular film’ uses memory as a specific framework for the cultural study of film. Taking Hollywood as its focus, this timely book provides a sustained, interdisciplinary perspective on memory and film from early cinema to the present. Considering the relationship between official and popular memory, the politics of memory, and the technological and representational shifts that have come to effect memory’s contemporary mediation, the book contributes to the growing debate on the status and function of the past in cultural life and discourse. By gathering key critics from film studies, American studies and cultural studies, ‘Memory and popular film’ establishes a framework for discussing issues of memory IN film and of film AS memory. Together with essays on the remembered past in early film marketing, within popular reminiscence, and at film festivals, the book considers memory films such as Forrest Gump, Lone Star, Pleasantville, Rosewood and Jackie Brown. ‘Memory and popular film’ provides a wide-ranging analysis that will benefit both students and critics of popular culture, film studies and the past. [Rights:]

Table of Contents:

  • Notes on contributors
  • Acknowledgements
  • ‘Introduction: memory and popular film’ by Paul Grainge

Part 1: Public history, popular memory

  • ‘A white man’s country: Yale’s Chronicles of America’ by Roberta E. Pearson
  • ‘Civic pageantry and public memory in the silent era commemorative film: The Pony Express at the Diamond Jubilee’ by Heidi Kenaga
  • ‘Look behind you!’: memories of cinema-going in the ‘Golden Age’ of Hollywood’ by Sarah Stubbings
  • ‘Raiding the archive: film festivals and the revival of Classic Hollywood’ by Julian Stringer

Part 2: The politics of memory

  • ‘The articulation of memory and desire: from Vietnam to the war in the Persian Gulf’ by John Storey
  • ‘The movie-made Movement: civil rites of passage’ by Sharon Monteith
  • ‘Prosthetic memory: the ethics and politics of memory in an age of mass culture’ by Alison Landsberg
  • ‘”Forget the Alamo”: history, legend and memory in John Sayles’ Lone Star’ by Neil Campbell    

Part 3: ‘Mediating memory

  • ‘‘Mortgaged to music’: new retro movies in 1990s Hollywood cinema’ by Philip Drake
  • ‘Colouring the past: Pleasantville and the textuality of media memory’ by Paul Grainge
  • ‘Memory, history and digital imagery in contemporary film’ by Robert Burgoyne
  • ‘Postcinema/Postmemory’ by Jeffrey Pence

Table of Contents:

  • Acknowledgements 
  • A 1950s timeline
  • ‘Celebrating British cinema of the 1950s’ by Ian MacKillop and Neil Sinyard


  • ‘Raymond Durgnat and A Mirror for England‘ by Robert Murphy
  • ‘Lindsay Anderson: Sequence and the rise of auteurism in 1950s Britain’ by Erik Hedling

Mirroring England

  • ‘National snapshots: fixing the past in English war films’ by Fred Inglis
  • ‘Film and the Festival of Britain’ by Sarah Easen
  • ‘The national health: Pat Jackson’s White Corridors‘ by Charles Barr
  • ‘The long shadow: Robert Hamer after Ealing’ by Philip Kemp
  • ‘”If they want culture, they pay”: consumerism and alienation in 1950s comedies’ by Dave Rolinson
  • ‘Boys, ballet and begonias: The Spanish Gardener and its analogues’ by Alison Platt
  • ‘Intimate stranger: the early British films of Joseph Losey’ by Neil Sinyard

Painfully squalid?

  • Women of Twilight‘ by Kerry Kidd
  • Yield to the Night‘ by Melanie Williams
  • ‘From script to screen: Serious Charge and film censorship’ by Tony Aldgate
  • ‘Housewife’s choice: Woman in a Dressing Gown‘ by Melanie Williams


  • ‘Too theatrical by half? The Admirable Crichton and Look Back in Anger‘ by Stephen Lacey
  • A Tale of Two Cities and the Cold War’ by Robert Giddings
  • ‘Value for money: Baker and Berman, and Tempean Films’ by Brian McFarlane
  • ‘Adaptable Terence Rattigan: Separate Tables, separate entities?’ by Dominic Shellard

Personal views

  • ‘Archiving the 1950s’ by Bryony Dixon
  • ‘Being a film reviewer in the 1950s’ by Isabel Quigly
  • ‘Michael Redgrave and The Mountebank’s Tale‘ by Corin Redgrave

>Christopher Nolan Studies


An image from Inception (Christopher Nolan, 2010)

Film Studies For Free knows only too well that there’s a time and a place for everything. Given that Christopher Nolan‘s Inception has just premiered to mostly great online acclaim, it is probably the right time and place for a bumper FSFF “Christopher Nolan Studies” entry (despite the fact that FSFF‘s author won’t actually see his new film till the weekend… No spoilers, people!).

Much more than all you need to know about the online discussion of Nolan’s latest film is linked to with customary wit and brevity by David Hudson. The below links, then, restrict themselves to online, openly accessible, and (pure-dead-brilliant) scholarly takes on Nolan’s film work, and related matters, to date.

    Obstinate Battles for Documentary Memory: Patricio Guzmán Resources Online

    Regular readers will know, hopefully, that Film Studies For Free issues forth only on the topics that take its fancy. It receives no commercial or other patronage, and it does not respond to ‘prompts’ for its hypertextual-utterances: nor does it want any! It loves and supports free online culture, and it prefers to make its own reading, viewing and blogging choices. Sometimes, though, it does get independently inspired by commercially-available film releases or new offline publications of a very worthwhile kind, as was the case today. And the result is a little bit of unsolicited free advertising…

    FSFF was so HAPPY to hear that Chilean documentarist Patricio Guzmán‘s films The Battle of Chile (19751978), The Pinochet Case (2001) and a particular personal favourite, Chile, Obstinate Memory (1997 – see the opening sequences above) have been released on a new DVD by a great and longstanding supporter of Latin American film culture — Icarus Films — that it decided to mark this very auspicious occasion with a related scholarly links-list in honour, and warm appreciation, of Guzmán’s hugely important films.